Smoking leads to lung Cancer

Editorial - (2021) Volume 0, Issue 0

Bryan Pearson*
*Correspondence: Bryan Pearson, Department of Respiratory, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Greece, Email:
Department of Respiratory, Hellenic Mediterranean University, Greece

Introduction

Lungs are the sponge-like-organs present in the upper part of the body called chest. The lungs main function is to intake oxygen and getting rid of carbon dioxide. The right lung has 3 lobes and left lung have 2 lobes (the left lung is smaller in size compare to the right lung because the heart adds up some space of the left side of the chest. Human beings inhale air through nose and the mouth. The air inhaled is carried to lungs through trachea. The Trachea is divided into two small tubes called bronchi. The bronchi enter into the lungs and in the lung the bronchi are further divided into small branches called bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles small air sacs are present. These sir sacs are called as alveoli. The alveoli function is to absorb oxygen into blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood when exhaled. The carcinoma cell in lungs grows in the inner lining of bronchi such as bronchioles and alveoli. Cancer in lungs occurs in two types and each of them is treated differently.

Most of the lung cancers are NSCLC(Non-small cell lung cancer). The NSCLC have subtypes called Adenocracinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma(less common type occurring cancers).

Large cell Carcinoma is very difficult to treat because the cancer cell called large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma is a fast growing cancer cells and quickly spreads too. This type of cancer occurs in any part of the lungs. Squamous cell carcinoma occurs inside of the airways of lungs (central part of the lungs (bronchus)). This type of cancer occurs only if the patient had a history of smoking. Adenocracinoma cancer cell starts in the secrete substance called mucus. This type of cancer occurs to the people who are currently smiking or former smokers. But also this type of cancer is found in people who do not smoke too. Adenocarcinoma in situ or bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is found before spreading.

About 10% to 15% of all lung cancers are SCLC (Small cell lung cancer) and it is sometimes called oat cell cancer. This type of lung cancer tends to grow and spread faster than NSCLC. About 70% of people with SCLC will have cancer that has already spread at the time they are diagnosed. Since this cancer grows quickly, it tends to respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, for most people, the cancer will return at some point.

Along with the main types of lung cancer, other tumors can occur in the lungs.

1. Lung carcinoid tumors: Carcinoid tumors of the lung account for fewer than 5% of lung tumors. Most of these grow slowly. For more information about these tumors, see Lung Carcinoid Tumor.

2. Other lung tumors: Other types of lung cancer such as adenoid cystic carcinomas, lymphomas, and sarcomas, as well as benign lung tumors such as hamartomas are rare. These are treated differently from the more common lung cancers and are not discussed here.

3. Cancers that spread to the lungs: Cancers that start in other organs (such as the breast, pancreas, kidney, or skin) can sometimes spread (metastasize) to the lungs, but these are not lung cancers. For example, cancer that starts in the breast and spreads to the lungs is still breast cancer, not lung cancer. Treatment for metastatic cancer to the lungs is based on where it started (the primary cancer site).

Acknowledgment

I thank the African Journal of Respiratory Medicine for choosing me to write a brief report on pulmonary fibrosis.

Conflict of Interest

I have no Conflict of interest.

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